Main Article Content
Spectrum sensing, combined or not with database information on radio-frequency (RF) spectrum occupation, is envisaged as part of the solution to the spectrum scarcity inherited by the fixed spectrum allocation policy currently adopted around the world. The solution is grounded on the premise of spectrum sharing between primary (incumbent) and secondary networks under a new dynamic spectrum access (DSA) paradigm. This tutorial presents basic concepts, fundamentals and state-of-the-art techniques related to spectrum sensing. Thought as a short course material, it covers from concepts regarding the forms of spectrum sensing and basic fundamentals on detection theory, to modern cooperative spectrum sensing techniques and research challenges, passing through the mathematical model for the signal and the sensing channel, the signal-to-noise ratio wall, practical issues regarding signal processing tasks, and performance metrics. A complete DSA framework is also addressed, which makes use of Internet of things devices equipped with spectrum sensing modules as a means to feed spectrum occupation databases.
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