Overcoming the Challenges of Data Lack, Leakage, and Dimensionality in Intrusion Detection Systems: A Comprehensive Review

Main Article Content

Mohamed Aly Bouke
Azizol Abdullah
Nur Izura Udzir
Normalia Samian


The Internet of Things (IoT) and cloud computing are rapidly gaining momentum as decentralized internet-based technologies and have led to an increase in information in nearly every technical and commercial industry. However, ensuring the security of IoT systems is a pressing issue due to the complexities involved in connected and shared environments. Networks are guarded by Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) against various cyber threats such as malware, viruses, and unauthorized access. IDS have recently adopted Machine Learning (ML) and Deep Learning (DL) techniques to identify and classify security risks. However, the effective utilization of these technologies depends on the availability, quality, and characteristics of the data used to train models. Moreover, data lack, data leak, and dimensionality (DLLD) are common problems in data science and ML. This paper surveys existing research and suggests solutions for overcoming DLLD-related issues to improve IDS model.

Article Details

How to Cite
Bouke, M. A., Abdullah, A., Udzir, N. I., & Samian, N. (2024). Overcoming the Challenges of Data Lack, Leakage, and Dimensionality in Intrusion Detection Systems: A Comprehensive Review. Journal of Communication and Information Systems, 39(1). https://doi.org/10.14209/jcis.2024.3
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Author Biographies

Mohamed Aly Bouke, University Putra Malaysia

MOHAMED ALY BOUKE holds a Master's and a Ph.D. in Information Security from the University of Putra Malaysia, specializing in cybersecurity, cyber warfare, and machine learning applications in information security. He is a member of the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers), reflecting his involvement in the technology and engineering community. In his role with the International Information System Security Certification Consortium (ISC2), Mohamed contributes to advancing cybersecurity practices. He is a certified trainer for various international organizations and engages in educating students worldwide through training programs. His expertise extends to authoring publications and participating as a manuscript reviewer for recognized journals, furthering his engagement in the cybersecurity field. As a public speaker and author, Mohamed shares his knowledge and insights, adding value to discussions and literature in information security.

Azizol Abdullah, University Putra Malaysia

AZIZOL ABDULLAH received the M.Sc. degree in engineering (telematics) from The University of Sheffield, U.K., in 1996, and the Ph.D. degree in parallel and distributed systems from Univer- siti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia, in 2010. He is an Associate Professor with the Department of Tech- nology and Communication Networking, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technol- ogy, Universiti Putra Malaysia. He is the Head of the Network, Parallel, and Distributed Computing Research Group and a member of the Information Security Research Group at the Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, UPM. At the national level, he is a member of Cyber Security Academia Malaysia (CSAM). He was also appointed as a Fellow Researcher for ITU-UUM Asia Pacific Center of Excellence For Rural ICT Development (ITU-UUM). He has also been involved as a consultant for AnyCast@MyDNS Project, MyNIC and Ministry of Science and Innovation projects, Malaysia (MOSTI) and Integrated Sports Management System Project, Ministry of Youth and Sports, Malaysia. His main research areas include cloud and grid computing, network security, wireless and mobile computing and computer networks. He is engaged in Malware Detection research, SDN, SDWAN network research and SDWAN Security research.

Nur Izura Udzir, University Putra Malaysia

NUR IZURA UDZIR is an Associate Professor at the Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) since 1998. She received her Bachelor of Computer Science (1995) and Master of Science (1998) from UPM, and her PhD in Computer Science from the University of York, UK (2006). Her areas of specialization are computer security, intrusion detection systems, access control, secure operating systems, steganography, coordination models and languages, and distributed systems. She is a member of IEEE Computer Society, Malaysian Board of Technologists (MBOT), Information Security Professionals Association of Malaysia (ISPA.my), Society of Digital Information and Wireless Communications (SDIWC). Dr. Nur Izura has supervised and co-supervised over 50 PhD students and over 15 Master (by research) students. She has written a book on Introduction to C++ Programming (2001), edited 3 books in information security topics, and has published over 120 articles in journals and as book chapters, and over 100 international conference proceedings, thus earning a H-index of 17 with 1331 citations in Scopus (H-index 26 and 2679 citations in Google Scholar) as of December 2022. For her contributions in academic and research, she has won various awards, i.e. the MIMOS Prestigious Award 2015 for the supervision of her student's doctoral thesis, the Young Scientist Award 2021, and seven Best Paper Awards at international conferences. In addition to keynote speeches and invited expert talks, she has also been invited as a visiting lecturer/foreign scientist at the M. Auzeov South Kazakhstan State University, Kazakhstan in 2014, 2019 and 2020.

Normalia Samian, University Putra Malaysia

NORMALIA SAMIAN (Member, IEEE) is a Senior Lecturer at the Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). She received her Ph.D. degree from Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) in 2017 in the area of cooperation in wireless multihop networks. During her Ph.D. candidature, she has been awarded the N2 Women Young Researcher Fellowship at IEEE LCN2016 in Dubai. Her main research interests include ad hoc networks security, cooperation, and trust management in wireless networks, the Internet of Things (IoT), and blockchain technology. She is now leading a grant project on securing IoT networks using blockchain technology. She has published several impact factors journals and tier-A conferences related to her fields and has served as a reviewer/technical program committee in international journals/conferences. Currently, she is the leader of the Wireless, Mobile, and Quantum Computing (WiMoQ) research group and also the head of the academic advisor in her department.