Combined Polar Codes and 2-12 QAM Applied to 5G Communications

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Flávia Camila Morais de Oliveira, MSc
Maria de Lourdes Melo Guedes Alcoforado, PhD
Garik Markarian, PhD
Valdemar Cardoso da Rocha Jr., PhD
Waslon Terllizzie A. Lopes


The 5th generation of cellular communications systems (5G), standardized by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), uses polar codes in both physical download control channel (PDCCH) and physical download shared channel (PDSCH), combined with some low order modulations, such as QPSK and 16QAM.  Recently, 2-12 QAM modulation was proposed as an energy-efficient scheme when compared to 16QAM.  This article investigates the perfomance of a communication system using polarcodes combined with a 2-12 QAM modulation scheme over channels disturbed by additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) as well as over channels disturbed simultaneously by Rayleigh fading and AWGN. The 2-12 QAM modulation is compatible with legacy 16QAM still widely used, and when combined with appropriate error correcting codes produces results that approach the Shannon limit.

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How to Cite
Oliveira, F. C. M. de, Alcoforado, M. de L. M. G., Markarian, G., Rocha Jr., V. C. da, & Lopes, W. T. A. (2023). Combined Polar Codes and 2-12 QAM Applied to 5G Communications. Journal of Communication and Information Systems, 38(1).
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Author Biography

Waslon Terllizzie A. Lopes, Federal University of Paraíba

Waslon Terllizzie Araujo Lopes was born in Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil. He received the B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in Electrical Engineering from Federal
University of Paraiba, Brazil, in 1998 and 1999, respectively. He received his D.Sc. degree in Electrical Engineering from Federal University of Campina
Grande, Brazil in 2003. From November 2018 to October 2019 he was visiting professor in the University of Toronto, Canada. Currently, he is with
Department of Electrical Engineering of Federal University of Paraíba, Brazil. He is also Financial Director of the Institute for Advanced Studies in
Communications (Iecom). His research interests include robust vector quantization, wireless communication systems, communication theory, and digital
signal processing. Dr. Waslon co-authored the books Communications, Information and Network Security published by Kluwer Academic Publishers and Spectral
Sensing: Techniques and Applications published by Momentum Press. Waslon Terllizzie is member of the Brazilian Telecommunications Society (SBrT) since
1997 and Senior Member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

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