A Simulation Model for Industrial Multi-Channel Wireless Sensor Networks
The use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) in industrial environments is subject to problems, such as shadowing and fading. In addition, the wireless channel in many industrial environments is non-stationary for a long term, which can cause abrupt changes in the characteristics of the channel over time. A way to deal with those problems is the use of multi-channel protocols. However, it is difficult to evaluate, and compare different approaches because there is no reliable simulation model for industrial environments. This paper presents experimental results that characterize the wireless channel in industrial environments, and proposes a simulation model that captures the effects of fading, shadowing, and the non-stationary characteristics of the channel. It also considers the differences in the behavior of the different channels, and the asymmetry of the links. The model was integrated into the open source simulator Castalia. After the integration, two simulation studies were performed with the proposed model. In the first one, the Tree-based Multi-Channel Protocol was implemented and evaluated, and a comparison was made with the default model from Castalia. In the second case, CSMA/CA protocol, as defined in IEEE 802.15.4 standard, was compared to a protocol based on Time-Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) mode of IEEE 802.15.4e standard. The results showed that the use of TDMA and channel hopping is an alternative to deal with the problems of wireless channels in industrial environments.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).